Evaluations Underway in North Dakota's Missouri Coteau
by Laura Houseal, Ducks Unlimited
One of the fundamental components of successful conservation is evaluating
conservation efforts and subsequently modifying programs to increase their
effectiveness. Ducks Unlimited (DU) is currently conducting such an evaluation
of its grassland conservation programs in the wetland-rich Missouri Coteau
region of North Dakota.
Ducks Unlimited and its partners focus on protecting and restoring the
Coteau's grasslands to ensure high nesting success for breeding waterfowl
and other birds. The current evaluation examines the relationship between
waterfowl nesting success and surrounding landscape characteristics such
as the abundance of grassland cover and whether the land is enrolled in
the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program or is
used for grazing or agriculture.
This intensive evaluation is being led by Scott Stephens, research biologist
for DU's Great Plains Regional Office, and a doctoral candidate at Montana
State University. Regarding the study, Stephens says, "Research examining
reproductive success across the full range of landscape types is ‘cutting
edge' for ducks or any other grassland nesting birds."
Landcover maps based on satellite imagery were used to randomly select
study sites that contained a certain range of grassland cover when measured
at both a 4- and 36-square-mile scale. The results yielded 18 study sites
that encompass a range of landscape types from grassland cover only around
wetland edges and along roads to landscapes comprised entirely of native
The first year of a 2-year study took place during the spring and summer
of 2000. During this time, over 2,200 duck nests were located on the 18
sites and monitored for success. Over 300 nests of other grassland birds
were also studied, including marbled godwits, willets, upland sandpipers,
Wilson's phalaropes, sora rails, common snipe, short-eared owls, northern
harriers, American bitterns, and sharp-tailed grouse. The second year
of this intensive investigation will begin in April 2001 on the same study
sites. Long-term monitoring of some of these sites will continue in future
The data collected during this first year is still being processed and
analyzed. "The resulting information," says Stephens, "will help Ducks
Unlimited and its partners better understand how landscape characteristics
influence nesting success of ducks and other grassland nesting birds.
With this information, conservation programs will be refined to continue
identifying and strategically targeting protection and restoration of
landscapes where birds are and can be most successful over the long-term."
For more information, contact Laura Houseal, Ducks Unlimited, One
Waterfowl Way, Memphis, Tennessee 38120, (901) 758- 3764, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Factors Affecting Duck and Shorebird Use of Prairie Wetlands
by Rex Johnson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
and Daniel Hubbard, South Dakota State University
Little information is available to assess agricultural effects on migrant
shorebirds or waterfowl or to develop an empirical approach to integrating
conservation planning for these bird groups. Our research describes landscape-scale
and habitat factors that affect temporary and seasonal wetland suitability
for spring-migrant dabbling ducks and shorebirds, as well as factors that
affect the density of ducks using these wetlands.
Dabbling ducks and shorebirds were observed on temporary and seasonal
wetlands along roadside strip transects in eastern South Dakota during
spring migration in 1998 and 1999. In 1999, with eight repeated surveys,
one or more ducks were observed on 95.6% of wetlands on one or more occasions,
and shorebirds were observed on 56.9%. Mallards, pintails, gadwall, blue-winged
teal, and northern shovelers were each more likely to occupy seasonal
wetlands than temporary wetlands; however, preference for seasonal water
regimes was most pronounced among wetlands less than or equal to 0.5 acres.
All shorebird species used temporary and seasonal wetlands less than or
equal to 0.5 acres in proportion to availability in the sample; however,
shorebirds exhibited a preference for temporary wetlands that were greater
than 0.5 acres.
Land use surrounding a wetland exerted no effect on probability of use
by mallards or gadwall; however, blue-winged teal and northern shovelers
preferred wetlands in pasture over cropland, and pintails selected wetlands
in pasture over wetlands in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands.
Both killdeer and undifferentiated peeps preferred wetlands in crop fields
over wetlands in pasture or CRP land. Conversely, greater yellowlegs were
observed on a higher proportion of wetlands in CRP land than in cropland
or pasture, and Wilson's phalaropes preferred wetlands in pasture or rangeland.
We developed models predicting the suitability of temporary and seasonal
wetlands for migrating ducks and shorebirds. The most common landscape
factors affecting suitability for dabbling ducks were temporary wetland
density, seasonal wetland density, and total wetland density. Shorebirds
related less to landscape wetlands than dabbling ducks, possibly indicating
that they are more insular in their use of habitats during spring migration.
We used these models to classify approximately 861,000 wetlands in a
geographic information system data base covering eastern South Dakota.
All wetlands were classified as suitable for one or more species of dabbling
ducks, and 94.8% of wetlands were classified as suitable for one or more
We also developed models that predicted the mean density of dabbling
ducks on wetlands. Using only wetland size and landscape factors, we explained
from 4% to 38% of the variation in mean number of dabbling ducks observed
on temporary and seasonal wetlands. We estimate the present capacity of
eastern South Dakota to be approximately 6,850,000 total dabbling ducks,
including approximately 1,285,000 mallards.
The capacity of eastern South Dakota for total dabbling ducks was reduced
by 44.3% following drainage of wetlands less than or equal to 1.0 acre
in cropland. Northern shoveler capacity was reduced more than other species
(64.5%). We estimate a mean impact (direct and indirect) of -10.6 ducks
per drained wetland. Agricultural land use around a wetland does not disqualify
it as suitable habitat.
This information enables managers to predict the effects of wetland restorations
on migrant ducks and shorebirds as well as changes in farm program policies.
For more information, contact Rex Johnson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Division of Bird Habitat Conservation, 21932 State Highway 210,
Fergus Falls, Minnesota, (218) 736-0606, email@example.com, or Daniel
Hubbard, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Science, South Dakota State
Univeristy, Box 2140B, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, (605) 688-6121,
Hilliardton Marsh - Biodiversity in Action
by Kevin Loftus and Peter Davis, Ontario Ministry of Natural
In an area of Northern Ontario known as the Little Clay Belt, most wetlands
were drained for agricultural development in the early 1900s, leaving
little remaining wildlife habitat. The Hilliardton Marsh Restoration Project
was begun in 1993 to turn this situation around by providing staging habitat
for migrating waterfowl and breeding and brood-rearing habitat for resident
waterfowl. Another project goal was to increase biodiversity.
Construction on the 728-hectare project found within the Hilliardton
Marsh Provincial Wildlife Area began with four wetland cells. The first
and last cells were flooded in 1994 and 1997, respectively, with 87% of
the upland area that existed prior to restoration being transformed into
marsh (68%) and swamp (29%).
To assess the project's effectiveness in providing wildlife habitat and
other biodiversity benefits, the project site became the focus of two
graduate theses. In 1997, J.M. Gilbert, University of Waterloo, examined
the dynamics of vegetation development, and in 1999 D.A. Locky, University
of Waterloo, examined avifauna changes at the site.
Recognizing that the value of wetlands as waterfowl habitat is tied to the
existence of suitable vegetation communities, Gilbert examined the dynamics
of vegetation development in the wetland cells in relation to several factors.
The factors that most strongly influenced vegetation development were water
depths and pre-flood-site conditions. In particular, pre-flood-vegetation
communities, which ranged from agricultural soils to wooded areas, markedly
influenced vegetation development over the course of the study.
The areas exhibiting the greatest macrophyte development were open water
sites, which had been agricultural fields prior to flooding. Water depths
of 32 to 50 centimetres, open canopies, clear waters, and mineral soils
characterized these sites. The areas exhibiting the least macrophyte development
were found in flooded swamps characterized by water depths of 41 to 81
centimetres, closed canopies, murky waters, and organic soils.
Locky's study included comparisons of pre- (1993) and post-restoration (1997
and 1998) avifauna data using bird-point-count stations. Richness of avifauna
increased by 55% between 1993 and 1998, mainly by obligate wetland guild
species. The additional bird-point counts of these species in 1997 and 1998
indicated a much improved diversity including pied-bill grebe, horned grebe,
sandhill crane, Virginia rail, semi-palmated plover, belted kingfisher,
and numerous waterfowl species. Rare birds also increased from 10 species
pre-restoration to 24 species post-restoration. Examples of some of the
new additions were the endangered peregrine falcon and the provincially
significant horned grebe.
These studies demonstrate what many involved in North American Waterfowl
Management Plan efforts have known for years; namely, that well-designed
wetland-restoration projects provide benefits that extend well beyond
waterfowl species. These biodiversity benefits are reflected in the fact
that the newly restored Hilliardton Marsh Provincial Wildlife Area is
now considered a provincially significant wetland.
For more information, contact Kevin Loftus, (705) 755-1711, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Partners in the Hilliardton Marsh Project
Canadian Wildlife Service
The Nature Conservancy of Canada
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
Ducks Unlimited Canada
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
State of Alabama